Thursday, August 27, 2020
A Look at Demographics and Economics Demography is characterized as the quantitive and logical investigation of essential factual data that together enlightens the changing structure of human populaces. As a progressively broad science, demography can and concentrates any unique living populace. For those concentrated on human examinations, some characterize demography as clearly the logical investigation of human populaces and their attributes. The investigation of demography frequently prompts the order and division of individuals dependent on their mutual characteristicsÃ¢ or qualities. The inception of the word further cements the studys relationship to its human subjects. The English word demography is gotten from the French wordÃ¢ dÃ£ ©mographieÃ¢ which originates from the Greek wordÃ¢ dÃ¤mosÃ¢ meaning masses or individuals. Demography as the Study of Demographics As the investigation of human populaces, demography is basically the investigation of socioeconomics. Socioeconomics are the measurable information identifying with a characterized populace or gathering that are gathered and analyzed.Ã Demographics can incorporate theÃ¢ size, development, and geological appropriation of human populaces. Socioeconomics can additionally consider attributes of a populace like age, sex, race, conjugal status, financial status, level of salary, and level of education.Ã They can likewise incorporate the assortment of records of births, passings, relationships, relocations, and even rate of infection inside a population.Ã A segment, then again, by and large alludes to a specific area of the populace. How Demographics Are Used The utilization of socioeconomics and the field of demography is across the board. Socioeconomics are utilized by governments, partnerships, and other non-government elements to become familiar with a populaces qualities and the patterns inside that populace. Governments may utilize socioeconomics to follow and evaluate the impacts of their strategies and to decide if an approach had the proposed impact or conveyed inadvertent impacts both positive and negative. Governments may utilize singular socioeconomics concentrates in their exploration, however they likewise for the most part gather socioeconomics information as an evaluation. Organizations, then again, may utilize socioeconomics to pass judgment on the size and impact of an expected market or to survey the qualities of their objective market. Organizations may even utilize socioeconomics to decide if their merchandise are winding up in the possession of the individuals the organization has regarded their most significant client gathering. The outcomes from these corporate socioeconomics concentrates by and large lead to aÃ¢ more compelling utilization of advertising spending plans. Inside the field of financial matters, socioeconomics can be utilized to advise anything from monetary statistical surveying ventures to monetary approach improvement. As significant as the socioeconomics are themselves, segment patterns are similarly as significant as the size, impact, and even enthusiasm for specific populaces and segment gatherings will change after some time as a result of evolving political, social, and monetary circumstances and undertakings.
Saturday, August 22, 2020
How to Use Ancient History Essay Topics in Your Argumentative EssayMany students of Ancient History have spent much time and effort agonizing over the sorts of argumentative essay topics that are considered acceptable by the history teacher. Some students have put a great deal of thought into topics such as; the political arena, government, economics, religion, and war.The problem with these topics in Ancient History is that they simply do not fit the desired format for most advanced level history essays. However, there is a way to use these topics to your advantage in class without making it difficult for yourself or the student body. What I am going to show you here are some great topic ideas for any type of Ancient History student.One classic topic would be the economic backdrop of ancient times. This has an easy to understand format which means that it can easily fit into most essays. You will be able to combine the subject of 'how did the economy develop' with the development of 'laws'lawmakers.' This combination is a great topic for a part of the argumentative essay.Another classic topic would be the establishment of 'laws.' Many students will enjoy learning about how different regions of the world governed themselves based on local traditions and laws. If you want to teach yourself about how these regions came up with these local laws, you should consider looking at the laws of ancient Egypt, Greece, Rome, and Mesopotamia.A great topic for Ancient History is the government. Students will often enjoy learning about the workings of the governmental systems of their time. One great topic to learn about is the history of the early American government. Other topics that are often used as a part of the history argument include civil war, republics, and states.If you are not interested in teaching yourself how to write an argumentative essay, you can always hire a high school teacher to help you. Most high schools will be happy to teach other students if they w ill do a good job in their own classes. Teachers often get creative when teaching Ancient History because they love to teach their students.If you enjoy writing essays but do not want to take the time to write them, you can always hire an Ancient History instructor to help you out. A lot of teachers will take some time to coach or tutor you to help you gain confidence in your writing abilities. These instructors can be quite helpful and are worth considering if you are looking for a chance to improve your grades and learn to write better.Ancient History essay topics are very important to those that choose this subject. Use these essay topics as a tool to improve your writing skills and learn to write well.
Friday, August 21, 2020
The Effect of Celebrity (Athlete) Endorsements in Sportswear Marketing on the Consumer's impression of the Product and Overall Purchasing Decision - Literature audit Example VIP underwriting Several competitors have picked up status through accomplishments and made great picture for themselves in sports industry. This has caused them to be looked for reason for brand picture advertising and general selling of items. Competitors who are famous people appreciate acknowledgment from general society and consequently are at a decent situation to advertise customer products by showing up in brand advancement devices. Along these lines; picture is sufficient to make an incredible and simple impact focused on purchasers (Kahle and Homer, 1985, pp.954-961). VIP underwriting is utilized in promoting and requires ideal mixing of the system when utilized as a type of commercial. For example, Nike has set up every single imaginable measure in elevating its image to inspire and impact buyers into craving and making buys (Damian and Admap, 2010, pp.42-43). Digestion of geniuses in its notice battles guarantees that they keep up a high upper hand in sportswear industry since different firms in the business are battling for similar buyers. Uncommon contemplations are set on traits that are controlled by famous people (Daneshvary and Schwer, 2000, pp.203-213). Various individuals have distinctive social foundation which consistently drive them into deciding. The choices are made on the sort of standards convictions and peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s lifestyle. Subsequently; it is significant for the chosen endorser to have immense characteristics which are reliable and in accordance with consumerÃ¢â¬â¢s social desires (Ohanian, 1991, pp.46-53). Practices done by the competitor ought not give a negative impact in that the items get the opportunity to be detested because of the unscrupulous propensities he shows (Walker, et al., 1992, pp.69-76). Sportswear Company puts unique accentuation on... As the report focuses on that few competitors have picked up status through accomplishments and made great picture for themselves in sports industry. This has caused them to be looked for reason for brand picture showcasing and general selling of items. Competitors who are big names appreciate acknowledgment from people in general and consequently are at a decent situation to showcase customer products by showing up in brand advancement devices. Picture is sufficient to make an incredible and simple impact focused on customers. This paper pronounces that VIP underwriting is utilized in promoting and requires ideal mixing of the technique when utilized as a type of ad. For example, Nike has set up every single imaginable measure in elevating its image to propel and impact customers into wanting and making buys. Absorption of hotshots in its commercial crusades guarantees that they keep up a high upper hand in sportswear industry since different firms in the business are battling for similar buyers. Exceptional contemplations are set on qualities that are controlled by famous people. Various individuals have distinctive social foundation which consistently drive them into deciding. The choices are made on the sort of standards convictions and peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s lifestyle. Sportswear Company puts uncommon accentuation on qualities which big name has before choosing him to be utilized in brand underwriting. Brands to be supported should fall inside the specialized topic of VIP so one doesn't give repudiating messa ges to purchasers which is inverse with how they are seen to be.
Tuesday, May 26, 2020
Thinking about changing careers? Graduate school is the ticket to a career change; its not just for recent graduates. Many adults consider returning to school to earn a masters or doctoral degree and begin the career of their dreams. Think graduate school is only for the young? Think again. The average graduate student (collapsing over masters and doctoral programs in all fields) is well over 30 years of age. Midlife applicants to graduate school have special concerns. For example, what do you do about letters of recommendation when youve been out of college for a decade? Thats a tough one. Before you resign yourself to completing another bachelors degree or, worse yet, give up on applying to graduate school altogether, try the following: Contact your professors from college Professors keep records on students for years. Its a long shot, though, because professors are known to move on to other schools or retire, but try anyway. More importantly, professors probably wont recall enough about you to write a competent letter. While its helpful to obtain at least one letter from a professor, it might not be possible to contact your old professors. What then? Enroll in a class Before applying to graduate school, try taking a few classes, either at the undergraduate level if youre entering a new field or at the graduate level. Excel in those classes and let your professors get to know you. If theyre doing research in your area of interest, volunteer to help. Letters from faculty who know you now will help your application immensely. Ask a supervisor or employer to write on your behalf Given that most graduate applications require three letters of recommendation, you may need to look beyond faculty for your letters. A supervisor can write about your work ethic, enthusiasm, maturity, and life experience. The trick is ensuring that your referee understands what graduate admissions committees are looking for in applicants. Provide your referee with all the information he or she needs to write an excellent letter. Include a description of your work-related experiences, why you wish to attend graduate school, your skills, and abilities -- as well as examples of how your current work demonstrates those skills and abilities. In other words, consider exactly what youd like the letter to say, then provide your supervisor with everything he or she needs to write that letter. Provide phrases and paragraphs that contain important material and examples illustrating your capacities; this can help your supervisor frame the task and his or her evaluation. It can also subtly guide your letter writer; however, do not expect your supervisor to simply copy your work. By helping - providing detailed information and guidance - you can influence your letter by making it easy for your supervisor. Most people like easy and your letter is likely to reflect that.
Friday, May 15, 2020
Performance enhancing drugs are substances that if taken allow humans to excel at different activities such as sport. I strongly feel that there should be a strict law that states if any competitive athlete is caught using drugs they should face a lifetime ban for a first offence. Firstly drugs are illegal! Secondly, they are also banned in sports however that doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t stop people from misusing them. Thirdly they can damage your body and be extremely addictive. Currently, in most countries, the law for a first offence is a two-year suspension and a lifetime ban for a second offence. My main reason for a lifetime ban is to deter other athletes from using drugs. Surely this is only fair? My first argument is that it is unfair for any athleteÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦This is unfair for the other athletes who are clean and it shouldn t be tolerated. If you were an athlete who had never touched a drug wouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t you feel cheated and victimized? A lifetime ban for a first drug offence would make athletes reluctant of using drugs. If this was introduced and the athlete continued to use drugs, they wouldn t be able to participate again. This is a honourable punishment and they wouldn t have the opportunity to discredit the sport again. The reason for competition is to test your natural ability or to discover your improvements or weaknesses through training. The fact is taking drugs is an unnatural talent like taking credit for someone elseÃ¢â¬â¢s work or plagiarism. Athletes are destroying their integrity, the sportÃ¢â¬â¢s integrity and anyone they represents integrity, such as companies or organisations. Sporting integrity is being eaten away by the use of performing enhancing drugs. A sport that displays integrity can be identified as honest and sincere. It is supporting good sportsmanship and providing a safe and a fair environment for all involved. A person with integrity does what they say they will do in accordance with their values and beliefs. Just having integrity as a person will make people more open to trusting, respecting and believing in you. By using illegal drugs you lose your sporting integrity and this then becomes difficult to earn back. Huge worldwide sporting brands want to be associated with the biggest and bestShow MoreRelatedPerformance Enhancing Drugs Should Be Banned1645 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesrules by using performance enhancing drugs each year. Performance enhancing drugs help athletes to becomes bigger, faster, and overall better at their individual sport. This process is called doping. Doping can be defined as using drugs and various substances to better perform at a particular task. Furthermore, these athletes act in the moment and fail to see all aspects of these performance enhancing drugs. Contradictorily, some individuals argue that performance enhancing drugs should in fact be allowedRead MorePerformance Enhancing Drugs Should Be Banned1223 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesto performance enhancing drug use in athletes. Performance enhancing drugs should continue to be banned due to health risk factors, the element of cheating and abuse of the athlete s body. Paul is a dedicated young athlete. He works hard on the field and hard in the weight room training his body to peak conditioning for his sport. As a result of his hard work, Paul has secured a spot in the starting lineup. As his team develops and grows, Paul sees his team mates taking a performance enhancingRead MoreUse Of Performance Enhancing Drugs Should Be Banned1961 Words Ã |Ã 8 PagesThe controversial question is whether the use of Performance Enhancing Drugs (PED) in sports should be banned or not. Professional sports are popular in most countries. Major franchises are dealing with the issue of PED being used by the athletes who are paid to perform in the sport on the belief that they are naturally a raw talent. This controversial essay will side with the banning of PED use in any type of sport activity, whether it is at professional or amateur level. Both sides of this issueRead MorePerformance Enhancing Drugs Should Be Banned For Athletes600 Words Ã |Ã 3 Pages Per formance Enhancing Drugs Should Be Banned For Athletes The use of Performance Enhancing Drugs(PED) has a major impact on athletes negatively and cause many problems in sports and competitions. These PEDs should be banned for athletes and competitors on any level because they are, unhealthy and harmful to the body, give users an edge over competitors, and it diminishes the true sportsmanship of the game itself. The illegal use of Performance Enhancing Drugs lead to many unhealthy and potentionalyRead MorePerformance Enhancing Drugs Should Be Banned in Professional Sports2737 Words Ã |Ã 11 Pagesfifty game suspensions without pay for using performance enhancing drugs. Big names such as Ryan Braun and Alex Rodriguez were on this list. Testosterone, an illegal substance, is what is found in the performance enhancing drugs. Testosterone increases male characteristics such as body hair, aggression, deepening of the voice, and of course massive muscle growth (Ã¢â¬Å"SteroidsÃ¢â¬ par. 1). Some professional athletes claim to use performance enhancing drugs to recover more quickly from injury; others takeRead MoreAnabolic Steroid Use in Sports Summary1493 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesfierce among athletes. Winning at all cost often includes using one of many performance enhancing drugs such as anabolic steroids. Many athletes use performance enhancing drugs, like steroids, to achieve higher goa ls and set higher records than other drug-free successful athletes. Although athletes are performing at higher levels when using such drugs, what is the cost? Finally anabolic steroids should remain banned from sports because their use results in many harmful side effects; because theirRead MoreSteroid Use in Sports1732 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesAround an astonishing ten to fifteen percent of professional athletes use illegal steroids which are also known as performance enhancing drugs. These substances which are banned in professional sports arenÃ¢â¬â¢t just any type of steroid or drug. They are called anabolic steroids or performance enhancing drugs, and they are synthetically produced substances of male testosterone hormones. The use of these illegal steroids has garnered a lot of publicity within the world of sports over the past few yearsRead MorePerformance Enhancing Drugs Should Not Be Legalized1129 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesPerformance enhancing drugs should not be legalized Ã¢â¬ËOlympic track star Marion Jones was sentenced in a federal court to six months in prison.Ã¢â¬â¢ (Kelly and Rao, 2008) The reason why Jones was guilty is because of the use of performance enhancing drugs since 1999. More and more famous athletes prove to have used banned drugs to enhance their performance. At the same time, the role that the anti-doping agency is more and more important in the world wide games, such as Olympic Game, Tour de FranceRead MoreAnabolic Steroids : Use And Performance Enhancing Drugs1516 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesuse of performance enhancing drugs like anabolic steroids has been a debatable topic in the United States as early as the 1950Ã¢â¬â¢s. Former U. S. Representative Howard Berman expresses that Ã¢â¬Å"Steroids can seem necessary to compete at the highest level, and the quick rewards may seem to outweigh the long term consequences to users.Ã¢â¬ The National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) states that countless athletes, both young and old, fa ce life threatening illnesses due to the use of performance-enhancing drugsRead MorePerformance Enhancing Drugs791 Words Ã |Ã 3 PagesPerformance enhancing drugs Using performance-enhancing drugs such as doping. Most of the athletes take PEDÃ¢â¬â¢s so they can win a golden medal for their country. And they want fame. No any athlete shouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t take PED because no one knows the risks. The penalty for using performance enhancing drugs should be stricter because it can cause health risks, itÃ¢â¬â¢s cheating, an itÃ¢â¬â¢s legally, and world class athletes use it and still get away with it. The government should banned drugs so no any athlete shouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
Problem Solution: InterClean, Inc. In the following paragraphs we will discuss the InterClean, Inc. scenario and propose a solution to help InterClean, Inc.. InterClean, Inc. is making decisions that will affect the state of the company and could set them apart from their competition. They will have to look at the risks associated with these decisions and make sure that they find the best solution to make sure that the risks associated with this solution donÃ¢â¬â¢t outweigh the benefits of this solution. Situation Analysis Issue and Opportunity Identification InterClean, Inc. has made the decision to move to a solutions/selling model in order to compete in a new market and offer full-range service packages. With this decision, theÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦In addition to this task they have to help plan these types of organizational changes. First and foremost, HR has to do what is best for the company as a whole, but at the same time HR has to take care of the employees. The suppliers for InterClean want to maintain its working relationship, but also want to make sure they are a part of the new direction and can still sell their product. Problem Statement InterClean, Inc. goal is to become an industry leader in providing high-quality, full-range service packages to the institutional, industrial, and sanitation industries. End-State Vision InterClean, Inc. will be the first company to introduce all-inclusive full-service solutions packages domestically and worldwide. End-State Goals 1. To train the sales force to be an excellent solutions-based selling team. 2. To keep employee morale up and retain key employees during the transition. 3. To have a painless transition into the new direction of the company. Alternative Solutions 1. InterClean will offer training and development to remaining employees and managers during and after the merger to ensure success. 2. InterClean will offer outplacement services and severance packages to all employees that were let go due to the merger. 3. InterClean will offer incentives to key employees to stay with the company throughout out the reorganization process and merger. 4. InterClean will putShow MoreRelatedEmployee Career Management Plan - Hrm 531 Essay1513 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesInterClean, Incorporated Career Management Plan For New Employees * Career Development Plan Part III Ã¢â¬â Performance and Career Management HRM 531/Week Four July 26, 2010 Abstract Management has been tasked to develop a performance and management programRead MoreAlternative Solutions to Strategic Human Resources Problems3903 Words Ã |Ã 16 PagesResearch for Alternative Solutions In attempting to generically research for alternative strategic solutions to InterClean s human resource problems, Team-C found some plausible best practices which should help align their organizational structure with its goals. The industrial cleaning and sanitation industry is evolving around changing trends and driving forces that are causing InterClean to reassess their competitive advantage of human resource development. InterClean s recent acquisition ofRead MoreCareer Development Plan Part I- Job Analysis and Selection1648 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesInterClean, Inc. Memo To: Sales Supervisory Team and human resources department From: KC Sales Manager Date: August 24, 2009 Re: Career Development Plan Part I- Job Analysis and Selection Now that InterClean, Inc. has merged with EnviroTech some changes in the structure of the company are going to be made. The company will no longer sell only cleaning products but will also provide full-service cleaning solutions for organizations in the healthcare industry. A new sales team that will beRead MoreJob Analysis and Selection Plan1587 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagespersonnel with both companies, InterClean and EnviroTech, where reps will be grouped into multi-functional teams prepared to support InterCleanÃ¢â¬Ës high-quality products with high-quality service. TheyÃ¢â¬â¢ll be instructed in development of full-range service packages tailored to individual accounts. TheyÃ¢â¬â¢ll be trained to engage directly with facilities managers, health care professionals, and operational executives in their customers organizations Teams will use solutions-based selling that will require
Tuesday, May 5, 2020
Question: Discuss about the Automatic Ticketing System and Transport Globally. Answer: Introduction: In the present time, increase in population has also increases the pressure on the transport department as they have to carry more people towards the desired destination respectively. In addition, people also have become more conscious to have value of a journey so that they can able to receive benefits equivalent to the fare price (Ferreira et al. 2013). It has induced transport authorities to initiate several strategies so that people can able to receive best possible services at the time of availing transport services. Automatic ticket collection system has also introduced in order to provide fare treatment to all the passengers. It has also has been developed with an objective to reduce the journey time of the people. However, the introduction of automatic ticketing system also has several challenges that transport authority has faced in past few years. In this research, the focus will be on different positive and negative aspect of automatic ticketing system. The research will a lso provide prime focus on Opal ticketing system that has introduced smartcard ticketing system for public transport sector. The Opal ticketing system is managed by government of New South Wales that includes transport medium like rail, light rail, bus and ferry services (Pasha et al. 2012). In this research, the focus will be on highlighting the positive and negative aspect of opal ticketing system or automatic ticketing system compared to manual process. The research will also try to identify the best possible way to utilize automatic ticketing system in future as well. Benefits of automatic ticketing system: As per the article by Chandra, Prakash and Lamdharia (2013) automatic ticketing system is now used primary form of payment and ticketing for travelling on public transport system in the urban areas. It has introduced by the transport authority to handle the extra pressure on transport on peak time. As opined by Nakfoor et al. (2012) automatic ticketing system has reduced the time taken to develop a ticket for particular personnel. Therefore, it has reduced the amount of difficulties that traveller has to face at the time of availing public transport services. As opined by Bhuvaneswari et al. (2013) automatic ticketing system also has reduced the confusion among the passengers regarding the payment charges of the travel. For instance, Opal ticketing system has developed unique identification number of each card so that passengers can be recognized accordingly. Furthermore, Opal ticketing system also communicates with the customers through channels so that they do not have to face any difficulties at the time of travelling. As per the article by Chidlovskii and Paredes (2014), automatic ticketing system helps government to develop database regarding the kind of revenue has been collected through the public transport medium. Therefore, it has also helped the government to collect taxes from the public transport sector in a much more effective way. Cost of automatic ticketing system: Isern-Dey et al. (2013) have highlighted several challenges that implementation of automatic ticketing system will create for the transport authority. Firstly, utilization of automatic ticketing system requires huge amount of investment from the transport authority for developing effective software that is capable of providing accurate ticket. As a result, it reduces the revenue of the transport authority drastically (Ahmed et al. 2015). Secondly, it also takes time for people to get accustomed with the newly implemented system. Therefore, it initially increases the possibility of miscommunication regarding the way of collecting tickets (Shiibashi and Mori 2014). Thus, public transport authority will have to provide enough guidance to all the passengers regarding the way of collecting ticket. It will induce transport authority to recruit more people to handle the rush in a proper way. Therefore, it eventually will increase the operating cost for the transport sector. As per the artic le by Tang et al. (2013) automatic ticketing system heavily depends on technology. Therefore, any malfunction in the technological system will create huge amount of difficulties for the passengers. In case of opal card system, it has been identified that several child and youth are availing the transport services without having a registered card. Therefore, it also has reduced the amount of revenue that transport authority can collect through the utilization of automatic ticketing system (Casals et al. 2014). Utilization of personal information for the development of automatic ticketing system also will increase the possibility miss-utilization of personal information. Thus, it will also induce transport authority to implement more security system so that personal information of the people remains intact. However, Chandra, Soni and Keshari (2014) have highlighted that use of automatic ticketing system is still restricted at the urban areas. As transport pressure is much higher in th e urban areas, automatic ticketing system has helped to handle the pressure in an effective way. On the other hand, use of automatic ticketing system is still not as much popular in the rural areas. Literature gap: The above discussion has highlighted that automatic ticketing system is still relatively new concept that includes both positive and negative aspect. Therefore, no unique technique has been developed for successful utilization of automatic ticketing system. Thus, the research study will try to evaluate both positive and negative aspect of the automatic ticketing system so that it can able to fulfil all the objectives of the research study in an appropriate manner. Research questions: Questions regarding the cost and benefits of the automatic ticketing system are as follows: What are the prime benefits of automatic ticketing system in public transport sector? What are the costs of automatic ticketing system in public transport sector? How automatic ticketing system can be used in a much more effective manner? How automatic ticketing system impacts on users in the urban areas? Research methodologies: As opined by Anand et al. (2013) research methodology plays crucial role in fulfilling all the objectives of the research study in an appropriate manner. Research methodology allows the study to implement a systematic procedure so that it can able to deliver desired outcome. In order to analyse the effectiveness of automatic ticketing system, research study will use positivism research philosophy, deductive research approach and descriptive research design. The study will focus on the utilization of the mentioned technique as it has the capability of capturing effective information regarding the topic of the study. Furthermore, the study will also utilize effective data analysis technique so that outcome of the study can able to fulfil all the requirements in an appropriate manner. Research philosophy: Philosophy of the research provides tools to enhance the quality of the information regarding the topic of the research study. The research philosophy has three parts including realism, positivism and interpretivism (Vuleti?, Vuleta?Radoi?i? and Kalogeras 2015). In order to evaluate automatic ticketing system, the research study will focus on the positivism research philosophy, as it will help to collect in-depth information regarding the implementation of automatic ticketing system. It also will help to capture hidden information on automatic ticketing system and its impact of the people who are looking to avail public transport on regular basis (Moshir et al. 2013). On the other hand, the research study will not consider other research philosophies, as it will enhance the required time for completing the research study in an appropriate manner. Research Approach: Research approach is implemented in the study to enhance the required format to be involved. Primarily, two basic research approaches are present namely deductive approach and inductive approach. In order to analyse cost and benefits of automatic ticketing system, deductive research approach will be selected. The study will select deductive approach as it will help to include several types of journals and theories so that it can able to fulfil all the requirements in an appropriate manner (Morris et al. 2015). Therefore, utilization of deductive approach will help to increase the value of the research study in an appropriate manner. On the other hand, the research study will not utilize inductive approach, as the study does not require introduction of any new concept. Research design: Research design helps to improve the evaluation framework regarding the topic of the research. It also helps to capture appropriate data so that it can able to fulfil all the requirements in an appropriate manner. Three types of design are there including exploratory design, descriptive design and explanatory design (Silverman 2016). In order to analyse all aspect of automatic ticketing system, the research study will focus on utilization of descriptive research design. The study will focus on descriptive research design, as it will help to define theories and approaches in an effective manner. It also helps to include more detailed assessment regarding the topic of the research study. Utilization of descriptive research design provides more close analysis, which will help to fulfil all the requirement of the research study in an appropriate manner. Gantt chart: Activities Week 1-2 Week 3-5 Week 6 Week 7-9 Week 10 Week 11-12 Week 13-14 Research topic Selection Developing layout Literature review Development of the research plan Selection of the research process Selection of data collection technique Selection of data analysis technique Findings of the Data Conclusion of the Study Final Submission Table 1: Gantt chart (Source: As created by the author) Research process: As per the article by Makihara et al. (2016) selection of research process is very important in order to fulfil all the requirements of the research topic. In this particular research study, systematic procedure will have to follow in order to fulfil all the objectives in an appropriate manner. Firstly, the topic of the research has been selected after considering several other topics based on the relevancy in current society. Secondly, the research has focused on the evaluation of several previous research studies so that it can able to develop the literature review in an effective manner. The literature review section has tried to include as many previous studies as possible in order to make it much more critical. Thirdly, the research study has developed research questions in order to channel the entire study to a particular direction. The study has developed research questions regarding the present challenges that automatic ticketing system is facing in the recent time. Furthermo re, the research study has tried to develop questions in such a way so that it can able to cover all aspects of the research topic in an appropriate manner. Fourthly, the research study will also focus on the proper utilization of research methodology techniques. The study will segregate the entire research study into different parts so that it can cover all areas of the study. The research methodology will be developed on the selection of research philosophy, research approach and research design that helps the entire study to move forward to a particular direction. Fifthly, the research study will focus on the selection of data collection and data analysis technique, as it is necessary to complete the entire study in an effective manner. The research study will consider different types of data collection procedure in order to fulfil all the objectives. Finally, the research study will focus on the evaluation of the outcome of the research study in order to identify the kind of ben efits in can provide to the concerned authority. Data collection and analysis process: As opined by Ardhito and Girsang (2016) proper utilization of data collection and analysis techniques are necessary in order to fulfil all the requirements of the research study in an effective manner. Generally, secondary and primary are the two types of data collection are used in the research study. However, due to lack of time, only primary data collection technique will be utilized in this particular study. The research study has selected primary data collection technique for the evaluation automatic ticketing system, as it will help the study to include practical perspectives. Furthermore, in order to evaluate automatic ticketing system, both qualitative and quantitative data collection technique will be utilized by the research study. The study will select 90 daily public transport passengers for the collection of quantitative data. The research study will focus on developing questionnaire with closed-end questions so that the captured information can provide an indication reg arding the topic of the research study. On the other hand, 15 public transport authority managers will selected for the collection of qualitative data regarding the topic of the research study. Internet as well as social media platform will be selected for the effective collection of quantitative data whereas face-to-face conversation mode will be selected to gather in-depth information regarding the advantages and disadvantages of implementing automatic ticketing system. The research study will consider several types of statistical tools and techniques for the effective analysis of collected data regarding automatic ticketing system. For instance, the research study will utilize mean, median, mode techniques at the time of analysing the collected data. Furthermore, the research study will also use correlation and regression technique, as it will help to enhance the value of the study. Expected research outcomes: From the above discussion, it can be assessed that the research study will able to depict the kind of benefits that it can able to provide for effective management of transport system. It is also expected that the research study will evaluate that automatic ticketing system is a future techniques which will have to be implemented in an appropriate manner. The study will also expected to depict the best possible way to reduce the adverse impact of automatic ticketing system so that people can avail public transport services in a much more effective manner. References: Ahmed, S.H., Yaqub, M.A., Bouk, S.H. and Kim, D., 2015, July. Towards content-centric traffic ticketing in VANETs: An application perspective. In2015 Seventh International Conference on Ubiquitous and Future Networks(pp. 237-239). IEEE. 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